Thirteenth world chess champion (1985-2000), International Grandmaster (1980), Honored Master of Sports (1985), two-time champion of the USSR (1981, 1988). Recipient of "Chess Oscar" (1982, 1983, 1985-90, 1996), World Cup (1989). Prominent Russian politician.
Garry Kasparov (Weinstein at birth) was born April 13, 1963, in Baku. At 4 years learned to read, he loved geography and history.
In chess, Garry learned to play as early as age five, from watching their parents. His father was a man of diversified, loved poetry, music, chess. Noticing the unique analytical capabilities son, my father decided that chess should be preferred music, and that he had determined the final choice in the life of Garry.
At age 7, he wanted to be a doctor to save her father Kim Weinstein, a patient with leukemia.
Regular practice of chess Garry started at Baku Palace in seven. In the same year he lost his father.
With ten years was engaged in the Kasparov Chess School former world champion Mikhail Botvinnik. At fifteen, he became an assistant Kasparov Botvinnik.
In 1976, his mother - Armenian Clara, an engineer, a specialist in automation and remote control
In 1979, Kasparov for the first time performed GM norm. It happened at a major international tournament in Banja Luka, for two rounds before the end of the competition. Already in the first ten rounds, he scored eight wins and only two games ended in a draw, but in the end was the winner ahead of time.
In 1980, Garry Kasparov won three gold medals - for the great end of school, winning the world championship among youth, as well as participation in the USSR team at the World Chess Olympiad. After three convincing victories in international tournaments in Yugoslavia (Banja Luka, 1979, Bugojno, 1982, Niksic, 1983), the Yugoslav newspaper, noting the rich imagination and quick calculation of variations, called it "a computer with a soul."
In 1986, Kasparov graduated from Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages.
October 19, 1984 began a surprising confrontation between Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov, keep in suspense the chess world for more than 10 years. Lasted 159 days of unlimited first match in Moscow (up to 6 wins), who after 48 games was the first time in chess history unfinished. Playing with the score 0-5, Kasparov seemed doomed to defeat in the match, but managed to resist and brought the score to 3:5 with 40 draws. The match was interrupted by the president of FIDE (World Chess Federation), Florencio Campomanes.
Six months later, in September 1985, again in Moscow held their new match in which Kasparov won with a score of 13:11, and at 22, became the 13th world champion - the youngest in the history of chess. In 1986, he won the rematch 12,5:11,5 (Leningrad). In 1987, in Seville, their match ended in a draw, which allowed him to retain the world title, in 1990 (New York - Lyon) beat Karpov world championship match with a score 12,5:11,5.
Total Kasparov and Karpov played in five games 144 Party (won 21, lost 19, 104 ended in a draw).
In 1989, Garry Kasparov has surpassed the highest Elo rating (2785), which has long belonged to Robert Fischer, then the first in the world overcome the barrier of 2800, and a series of brilliant victories in super tournaments in 1999 allowed him to raise his rating to a fantastic point - 2851, not unsurpassed to this day (November 2010).
Continuing the best traditions of world champions Garry Kasparov devotes much attention to the social and literary activities in the field of chess, organizes and supports children's chess schools around the world, helps maximize the use of modern computer technology and television in the interest of promoting chess in the world, defends the professionalisation of chess for their progress as a sport, science and the arts.
Garry was one of the reasons the PCA (Professional Chess Association), which were conducted under the auspices of the matches for the world championship in 1993 in London with Nigel Short (12,5:7,5) and 1995 in New York City with Viswanathan Anand (10.5 : 7.5). In 2000 in London, Kasparov lost Vladimir Kramnik (6,5:8,5).
The great interest in the world and caused fights between Kasparov and "electronic chess" - a powerful computer program «Deep blue». Kasparov was one of the first athletes began performing under the Russian flag (1990), took an active part in the political life of the country. In 1999, he played a unique game against the team the rest of the world, which lasted 124 days on the Internet. Kasparov played against more than 3 million chess fans from 75 countries, which was an absolute record Internet. The party ended with the victory of the world champion in a deep queen endgame.
In addition to success in chess, Garry Kasparov great success achieved in the field of business, the proof of this - his "Order of the Eagle", founded by entrepreneurs in Russia, and won the "business man - a formula for success."
Garry Kasparov married. Wife - Julia. From his first marriage he had a daughter Pauline (1993g.rozhd.), From his marriage with Julia - son Vadim (1996).
In 1987, Kasparov engaged in private charity. In 1991, the first time in Russia was registered private charitable foundations Kasparov, who over the years provided material assistance to refugees, single pensioners and veterans of more than a million dollars.
Since 1991 he works in the famous American newspaper «The World Street Journal».
Garry, in his youth, loves to play soccer, tennis, engaged in running, gymnastics and swimming.
In March 2005, Kasparov won another super tournament in Linares (Spain), and announced the end of his chess career. Kasparov's decision to leave the world of professional chess has been associated with the intention to devote most of their time to social and political activities. Garry Kasparov is co-chairman of All-Russian Civil Congress "Russia for democracy against dictatorship." In 2005, on his initiative, was established political movement United Civil Front, whose activists elected chairman Kasparov movement.
In 2007, the prestigious international consulting firm Synectics released top 100 living geniuses in science, politics, art and business. Kasparov occupies a 25th place.